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Campus Compact > Syllabi > Health > Foundations of Occupational Therapy

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Foundations of Occupational Therapy

School: Stony Brook University
Professor: Alexander Lopez, JD, OT/L, and Pamela Block, Ph.D.

COURSE GOAL

To provide first year students with foundational knowledge of occupational therapy as a profession and the construct of occupation, upon which all other theories and practice issues will build.

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This first year occupational therapy course provides a conceptual foundation for occupational therapy theory and practice.  It instructs students in the concepts of occupation, activity, purposeful activity and participation; through lecture and laboratory sessions, students will experience working with the concepts they are learning.  The course will examine the philosophical base of the profession, and explore the meaning and diversity of the frames of reference in contemporary occupational therapy practice.  The centrality of occupation in health and wellness will be emphasized, through balance in performance areas and contexts.  The impact of disability, disease, and injury on the person, their family and society will be explored.  Students will learn how to break down and analyze activities for their performance components, as well as how to grade and adapt activities for therapeutic purposes.  Group discussions on social and political systems will focus on how they influence the delivery of health care services, and the impact of culture on treatment and health practices will be introduced.  The concept of theory development will be taught, as well as how theories, models of practice and frames of reference impact occupational therapy evaluation/treatment.  All students are required to submit a comprehensive activity analysis with assigned community partners.  Community service learning is an integral part of the coursework.  You will apply theories, concepts, and paradigms to the community members from under-represented communities on Long Island.  The client populations will range from at-risk youth, mental health clients, and older adults.  You will complete a reflective journal and activity analysis for each of the visits. You will be required to make at least three visits with the community partners.

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

1: Readings

2: Lab activity – Activity and occupation-based analysis

3: Field visits

4: In-class discussions and activities

COURSE OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of assigned readings, lectures, activities and assignments, it is expected that the student will be able to:

Course Objective: Describe the importance of the philosophical base of occupational therapy.

ACOTE Standard: B.2.1 Acknowledge and understand the importance of the history and philosophical            base of the profession of occupational therapy.

Learning Activities: 1 – 4

 

Course Objective: Differentiate between the terms occupation, activity, purposeful activity and participation.

ACOTE Standards: B.2.2 Be able to differentiate among occupation, activity, and purposeful activity.  B.2.3 Understand the meaning and dynamics of occupation and purposeful activity including the integration of performance areas, performance components, and performance contexts.

Learning Activities: 1 – 4

 

Course Objective: Demonstrate their understanding of the meanings of occupation/purposeful activity.

ACOTE Standard: B.2.4 be able to articulate to the consumer, potential employers, and the general public             both the unique nature of occupation as viewed by the profession of occupational therapy and the value of occupation for the client. B.2.5 Acknowledge and understand the importance of the balance of performance areas to the achievement of health and wellness.

B.2.6 Understand and appreciate the role of occupation in the promotion of health and the prevention of disease and disability for the individual, family, and society.  B.2.7 Understand the effects of health, disability, disease processes in the promotion of health and the prevention of disease and disability for the individual, family and society.

Learning Activities: 1, 2 and 4

 

Course Objective: Differentiate performance areas, performance contexts and performance components.

ACOTE Standard: B.2.8 Exhibit the ability to analyze tasks relative to performance areas, performance components, and performance contexts.

Learning Activities: 1, 2 and 4

 

Course Objective: Define, in an articulate manner, the unique nature of the profession of occupational therapy.

ACOTE Standard: B.2.10 Understand the need for and use of compensatory strategies when desired life tasks cannot be performed. B.3.1Understand the theories that underlie the practice of occupational therapy. B.3.2 Understand the models of practice and frames of reference that are used in occupational therapy.

Learning Activities: 1, 2 and 4

 

Course Objective: Demonstrate an awareness of knowledge of the relationship between occupation and health, the importance of balance in performance areas, and the role of occupation in disease prevention and health promotion.

ACOTE Standard: B.2.9 Demonstrate appreciation for the individual’s perception of quality of life, well being, and occupation to promote health and prevention of injury and disease.

Learning Activities: 1 – 4

 

Course Objective: Discuss the impact of disease and disability on the individual, their family, and society.

ACOTE Standard: B1.7 Demonstrate knowledge and appreciation of the role of sociocultural, socioeconomic, diversity factors, and lifestyle choices in contemporary society. B.1.8 Appreciate the influence of social conditions and the ethical context in which humans choose and engage in occupations.

Learning Activities: 1, 2 and 4

 

Course Objective: Analyze activities for their performance components and therapeutic properties, knowing how to grade /adapt activities for use in treatment interventions in a variety of performance contexts;

ACOTE Standard: B.2.10 Understand the need for and use of compensatory strategies when desired life tasks cannot be performed. B.3.1    Understand the theories that underlie the practice of occupational therapy. B.3.2 Understand the models of practice and frames of reference that are used in occupational therapy.

Learning Activities: 1 – 4

 

Course Objective: Discuss theory development and know how the major theories influence contemporary occupational therapy practice.

ACOTE Standard: B.3.3 Understand how theories, models of practice and frames of reference are used in occupational therapy evaluation and treatment. B.3.4Understand how history, theory, and sociopolitical climate influence practice. B.3.6 Develop a basic understanding of theory development and its importance to occupational therapy.

Learning Activities: 1 – 4

 

METHODS OF INSTRUCTION

  1. Lecture
  2. Lab
  3. In-class discussions and activities
  4. Online Discussion
  5. Experiential activities

METHODS OF EVALUATION

(Include any grading rubrics for assignments, format for assignments such as APA style, and any penalties for late work, missed classes, lateness, etc.)

1. Attendance and participation at all lectures and lab sessions: (10%). Students are expected to come to all class meetings: 1) having read the assignments and 2) ready to vigorously discuss the issues at hand, bringing together both your own opinions, the material from the readings, and films and “real world” examples from community-based experiences to support your assertions. You are expected to have questions for your instructors and for each other. Encourage quiet fellow-students to participate by asking them questions – this will raise their (and your!) class participation grades.

2. Activity Analysis Paper: (20%). Students may choose an activity or may be assigned an activity and will include a detailed activity analysis. The activity analysis will be done in accordance with the form issued on the first day. You will observe a participant from one of the community organizations you are assigned; you will conduct an interview prior to the observation of the activity which will consist of an interest checklist and the Canadian Occupation Performance Measure.  The interview will allow you an opportunity to build rapport and develop an occupational profile. Next, you will observe the participant in the activity and write an analysis of the activity.

3. Reflective Journal (20%) The purpose of this assignment is to assist you in processing and integrating the material learned through reading, lectures, class participation, and community service learning. The reflective journal is intended to encourage the student to develop his/her creative and intuitive skills toward a critical self awareness as a reflective practitioner. You are to submit journal entries which will include related classroom lectures and materials and community-based assignments. The journals should have three sections:

  1. Reflections on the class content, readings, and class discussions from the perspective of both personal and professional experiences.
  2. Discussion of community-based assignments, issues or thoughts that you observed or participated in and how you responded to the experience, event or activity.
  3. Reflections and analyses on how particular situation/content/process issues and outcomes might be re-framed.

4. Midterm Examination (15%)

5. Final Examination (15%)

COURSE MATERIALS AND TEXTS

Required texts

American Occupational Therapy Association Student Membership, www.aota.org

American Occupational Therapy Association. (2006). Domestic Violence Statement. http://www.aota.org/Practitioners/Resources/Docs/Official/Statements/40219.aspx

American Occupational Therapy Association. (2002). Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and process. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 56, 609–639.

Baum, C. (2005). Presidential address – Building a professional tapestry. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59, 592–597.

Best, A. (2000) Prom Night: Youth,Schools and Popular Culture. New York: Routledge. (selections)

Bierman, K. L., Miller, C. L., & Stabb, S. D. (1987). Improving the social behavior and peer acceptance of rejected boys: Effects of social skill training with instructions and prohibitions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 194-200.

Block, P., Ricafrente-Biazon, M., Russo, A., Chu, K. Y., Sud, S., Koerner, L., Vittoria, K., Landgrover, A., & Olowu, T. (2005). Introducing disability studies to occupational therapy students. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59, 554-60.

Cole, M.B., & Tufano R. (2008). Applied Theories in Occupational Therapy: A Practical Approach, Thorofare, NJ: Slack Incorporated.

Cottrell, R. P. F. (2005). The issue is—The Olmstead decision: Landmark opportunity or platform for rhetoric? Our collective responsibility for full community participation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59, 561–568.

Crepeau, E., Cohn, E., Schell, B. (2009). Willard & Spackman’s Occupational Therapy, 11th edition. New York: Lippincott.

Hemmingsson, H., & Jonsson, H. (2005). The issue is—An occupational perspective on the concept of participation in the international classification of functioning, disability and health—Some critical remarks. American Journal of Occupational   Therapy, 59, 569–576.

Lefkowitz, B. (1997). Our Guys. New York: Vintage Books (selections)

Melchert – McKearnan, K., Deitz, J., Engel, J. M., & White, O. (2000). Children with burn injuries: Purposeful activity versus rote exercise. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54, 381-390 .

Sakellariou, D., & Sawada, Y. (2006). Sexuality after spinal cord injury: The Greek male’s perspective. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 60, 311–319.

Ward, J. D. (2003). The nature of clinical reasoning with groups: A phenomenological study of an occupational therapist in community mental health. American Journal      of Occupational Therapy, 57, 625–634.

Weinstock-Zlotnick, G & Hinojosa, J. (2004). The issue is—The Olmstead decision: Landmark opportunity or platform for rhetoric? Our collective responsibility for          full community participation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 58,     594–599.

World Health Organization. (2002). Towards a Common Language for Functioning, Disability and Health. Geneva.

Youngstrom, M.J. (2002) From the guest editor – The occupational therapy practice framework: The evolution of our professional language. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 56, 607–608.

Recommended texts

Meriano, C. & Latella. (2008). Occupational Therapy interventions: Functions and occupations. Thorofare, NJ: Slack Incorporated.

CLASS ASSIGNMENTS

Date: 08/31/2010

Lectures: Overview of Course; Intro to Theme of Occupation; Introduction to Occupation, Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy; Lopez & Block

Reading: W&S, Ch.1-3; Cole & Tufano Ch. 1; Selections from Lefkowitz and Best

Lab Activities: LAB: Interview; Six (6) hours of Community-based observation at an approved site

Date: 09/07/2010

Lectures: Occupational Therapy Practice Framework; International Classification of Functioning (ICF); Rescinded Uniform Terminology; Lopez & Block

Reading: OTPF, ICF Article Read: AOTA, 2002, Cole & Tufano Ch. 2

Lab Activities: Videos: Dancing from the Inside Out  African Healing Dance. I can help with the ICF discussion

Date: 09/14/2010

Lectures: What is Theory; Systems Theory; Occupational Therapy Practice Framework; Domain and Process; Purposeful Activity/Activity Analysis; Lopez & Block

Reading: Cole & Tufano Ch. 3 – 4; OTPF; OTPF Second Edition; AOTA, 2002

Date: 09/21/2010

Lectures: Occupation and Development: A Contextual Perspective; Understanding Family; Perspectives on Illness and Disability Experiences; Contribution of Occupation to Health and; Well-Being Disability and the Person; Block; Video Presentation and Discussion

Reading: Cottrell, 2005; W & S, Ch.4, 5, 6; Block, P., et. al., 2005; Cole & Tufano Ch. 5

Date: 09/28/2010

Lectures: Social and Health Policies in the United States Health Promotion Community Integration; Occupational Justice; Block

Reading: W&S, Ch. 17 – 20; Cole & Tufano Ch. 5

Lab Activities: Community-base Observation Assignment Due

Date: 10/05/2010

Lectures: Ethical Decision Making in Occupational Therapy, Professional Reasoning in Practice Client Centered Collaboration, Evidence-based practice; Lopez & Block

Reading: W & S, Ch.28, 29, 30 Lopez, A., Vanner L., Cowan, A.,Samuel, A.,  Shepherd, D. (2008).

Date: 10/12/2010

Lectures: The Therapeutic Process; Professional reasoning in practice; The Therapeutic Relationship; The Interview Process in Occupational Therapy; Analyzing Occupations and Activity; Principles of Learning and Behavior Change; Lopez & Block

Reading: W & S, Ch.32-36

Date: 10/19/2010

Lectures: Theory and Practice in Occupational Therapy; Ecological Models in Occupational Therapy

Reading: W&S, Ch. 42 – 45; Cole & Tufano Ch. 9-10

Date: 10/26/2010

Lectures: Theories, Frames of Reference; The Model of Human Occupation; Theory of Occupational Adaptation; Occupational Behavior; Youth violence, resiliency

Biomechanical and Rehabilitative Frames

Reading: W&S, Ch.42 – 45; W&S, Ch.18;Cole & Tufano Ch. 6-8 and 14

Date: 11/02/2010

Lectures: Election Day! Class is in session; Theories, Frames of Reference; Applied Behavioral Frames; Cognitive Behavioral Frames; Allen’s Cognitive Levels

Reading: Cole & Tufano Ch. 12-13

Date: 11/09/2010

Lectures: Theories, Frames of Reference; Life Span Development Frames; Motor Control and; Motor Learning; Sensory Integration and Processing

Reading: Cole & Tufano Ch. 17-19

Date: 11/16/2010

Lectures: Midterm Examination

Date: 11/23/2010

Lectures: Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; Caregiving and Childrearing; Occupational Therapy Evaluation and Intervention Related to Education; Work LAB – Community outreach

Reading: Handouts; W&S, Ch. 48 – 51

Date: 11/30/2010

Lectures: Lab Time

Lab Activities: Sewing Activities

Date: 12/07/2010

Lectures: Lab Time

Lab Activities: Activity Analysis Paper Due

Date: 12/14/2010

Lectures: Occupational Therapy Evaluation; OT with Adults and the Elderly

Reading: W&S, Ch. 22-26; W&S, Ch. 38-44

Lab Activities: Scrapbooking

Date: 01/04/2011

Lectures: OT Evaluation and Intervention: Environments

Reading: W&S, Ch. 60-62

Date: 01/04/2011

Lectures: Common Conditions: Related resources and evidence

Reading: Sewing and needlepoint Handouts

Lab Activities: Ann DiChiaro-Pfisterer, Assistant to the Chair

Date: 01/11/2011

Lectures: Occupational Therapy Intervention, Block

Reading: W&S, Ch. 27-31 LAB: Martial ArtsTai Chi; AOTA Domestic Self Defense Violence Statement; Javaherian, 2006

Lab Activities: Self Defense Violence

Date: 01/18/2011

Lectures: Occupation Presentation and Reflection, Lopez & Block

Date: 01/25/2011

Lectures: Activity Presentation and Reflection, Lopez & Block

Date: 02/01/2011

Lectures: Final Examination, Lopez & Block

EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING AND FIELDWORK I

Students participate in Fieldwork I experiences related to evaluation and treatment of adults with physical dysfunction within the context of a separate 1 credit course focusing on Fieldwork I experiences in totality. Experiences and assignments are developed in a collaborative manner between course faculty to ensure that students receive opportunities to integrate knowledge and skills developed in didactic and laboratory sessions with experiential clinical education.

COMMUNITY SERVICE-LEARNING

Exploring the Reciprocal Relationship between Community Member, Occupation, and Self

Introduction

  • This assignment has a two-fold benefit.   First, it provides a forum for experiential learning with community members (clients, consumers, patients, volunteers). First year students gain a better insight and understanding the occupational therapy profession’s contribution to community and society. Second, they are given an opportunity to gain invaluable understanding of service to the community.

 

Purpose of the learning activity

  • To explore concepts and theories of occupational therapy.
  • Demonstrate their understanding of the meanings of occupation/purposeful activity
  • Demonstrate an awareness of knowledge of the relationship between occupation and health, the importance of balance in performance areas, and the role of occupation in disease prevention and health promotion;
  • To provide a valuable service to the community.
  • To explore how the dimensions of person, place, and occupation.
  • To identify, understand and describe the process of roles, occupation, and meaningful existence.
  • To gain experience in working with clientele, patients, and consumers of occupational therapy services.

 

Description of the learning activity

  • Students attend 3 sessions each session takes approximately 3 hours per session to complete.
  • Day 1
    • The students build rapport, participate in scheduled program, and conduct an interview.  The interview process takes 20-40 minutes to complete.  It includes a semi-structured interview and an interest checklist.  The information obtained during this session will be used to identify an activity or occupation in which the individual would like to do with the student occupational therapist.  The activity or occupation may be an activity that the individual is already has proficiency or something novel they would like to learn how to do. It can range from playing a board game, learning how to use a computer, or learning to dance. Once the student occupational therapist and community member has identified an activity, they will plan to do the activity together at the subsequent visit.
    • The student occupational therapist will bring the materials or work with the community member in obtaining the materials and supplies for the activity.
  • Day 2
    • The students perform the activity with the community member. They will then analyze the way in which the community members perform the activity looking at the motor and process skills need to complete the task.  Also, the student will consider the therapeutic properties, consider how to grade /adapt activities for ease of performance and success.
  • Day 3
    • Wrap-up
    • Luncheon with community partners.

 

Suggestions for student feedback

  • Students will explore the reciprocal nature of the relationship between community member, occupation or activity, and self.
  • The ways in which a disability can impact a person’s perception of and participation during activities or occupations.
  • Consider the ways in which occupational therapists can use the concepts of occupation to increase the occupational engagement and participation.

Students are encouraged explore and develop creative and intuitive skills toward a critical self awareness as a reflective practitioner.

Campus Compact's workshops have been extremely valuable. Faculty often become energized by the workshop content and bring that enthusiasm back to campus."

-California State University-Stanislaus